Thermidor

De capi.day


Thermidor (French pronunciation: ​[tɛʁmidɔʁ]) was the eleventh month in the French Republican Calendar. The month was named after the French word thermal, derived from the Greek word "thermos" (heat).

Thermidor was the second month of the summer quarter (mois d'été). It started July 19 or 20. It ended August 17 or 18. It follows the Messidor and precedes the Fructidor. During Year 2, it was sometimes called Fervidor.

Because of the Thermidorian Reaction—9 Thermidor Year II—the overthrow of revolutionary radical Maximilien Robespierre and his followers in that month, the word "Thermidor" has come to mean a retreat from more radical goals and strategies during a revolution, especially when caused by a replacement of leading personalities.


3 Thermidor III
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Sunday
19 July 1795
2 Monday
20 July 1795
3 Tuesday
21 July 1795
4 Wednesday
22 July 1795
5 Thursday
23 July 1795
6 Friday
24 July 1795
7 Saturday
25 July 1795
8 Sunday
26 July 1795
9 Monday
27 July 1795
10 Tuesday
28 July 1795
décade 32
11 Wednesday
29 July 1795
12 Thursday
30 July 1795
13 Friday
31 July 1795
14 Saturday
1 August 1795
15 Sunday
2 August 1795
16 Monday
3 August 1795
17 Tuesday
4 August 1795
18 Wednesday
5 August 1795
19 Thursday
6 August 1795
20 Friday
7 August 1795
décade 33
21 Saturday
8 August 1795
22 Sunday
9 August 1795
23 Monday
10 August 1795
24 Tuesday
11 August 1795
25 Wednesday
12 August 1795
26 Thursday
13 August 1795
27 Friday
14 August 1795
28 Saturday
15 August 1795
29 Sunday
16 August 1795
30 Monday
17 August 1795
10 h
Paris
7h47m77s
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich


Conversion between Republican and Gregorian calendar for the years I - XIV
1 Thermidor I
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Friday
19 July 1793
2 Saturday
20 July 1793
3 Sunday
21 July 1793
4 Monday
22 July 1793
5 Tuesday
23 July 1793
6 Wednesday
24 July 1793
7 Thursday
25 July 1793
8 Friday
26 July 1793
9 Saturday
27 July 1793
10 Sunday
28 July 1793
décade 32
11 Monday
29 July 1793
12 Tuesday
30 July 1793
13 Wednesday
31 July 1793
14 Thursday
1 August 1793
15 Friday
2 August 1793
16 Saturday
3 August 1793
17 Sunday
4 August 1793
18 Monday
5 August 1793
19 Tuesday
6 August 1793
20 Wednesday
7 August 1793
décade 33
21 Thursday
8 August 1793
22 Friday
9 August 1793
23 Saturday
10 August 1793
24 Sunday
11 August 1793
25 Monday
12 August 1793
26 Tuesday
13 August 1793
27 Wednesday
14 August 1793
28 Thursday
15 August 1793
29 Friday
16 August 1793
30 Saturday
17 August 1793
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
2 Thermidor II
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Saturday
19 July 1794
2 Sunday
20 July 1794
3 Monday
21 July 1794
4 Tuesday
22 July 1794
5 Wednesday
23 July 1794
6 Thursday
24 July 1794
7 Friday
25 July 1794
8 Saturday
26 July 1794
9 Sunday
27 July 1794
10 Monday
28 July 1794
décade 32
11 Tuesday
29 July 1794
12 Wednesday
30 July 1794
13 Thursday
31 July 1794
14 Friday
1 August 1794
15 Saturday
2 August 1794
16 Sunday
3 August 1794
17 Monday
4 August 1794
18 Tuesday
5 August 1794
19 Wednesday
6 August 1794
20 Thursday
7 August 1794
décade 33
21 Friday
8 August 1794
22 Saturday
9 August 1794
23 Sunday
10 August 1794
24 Monday
11 August 1794
25 Tuesday
12 August 1794
26 Wednesday
13 August 1794
27 Thursday
14 August 1794
28 Friday
15 August 1794
29 Saturday
16 August 1794
30 Sunday
17 August 1794
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
3 Thermidor III
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Sunday
19 July 1795
2 Monday
20 July 1795
3 Tuesday
21 July 1795
4 Wednesday
22 July 1795
5 Thursday
23 July 1795
6 Friday
24 July 1795
7 Saturday
25 July 1795
8 Sunday
26 July 1795
9 Monday
27 July 1795
10 Tuesday
28 July 1795
décade 32
11 Wednesday
29 July 1795
12 Thursday
30 July 1795
13 Friday
31 July 1795
14 Saturday
1 August 1795
15 Sunday
2 August 1795
16 Monday
3 August 1795
17 Tuesday
4 August 1795
18 Wednesday
5 August 1795
19 Thursday
6 August 1795
20 Friday
7 August 1795
décade 33
21 Saturday
8 August 1795
22 Sunday
9 August 1795
23 Monday
10 August 1795
24 Tuesday
11 August 1795
25 Wednesday
12 August 1795
26 Thursday
13 August 1795
27 Friday
14 August 1795
28 Saturday
15 August 1795
29 Sunday
16 August 1795
30 Monday
17 August 1795
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
4 Thermidor IV
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Tuesday
19 July 1796
2 Wednesday
20 July 1796
3 Thursday
21 July 1796
4 Friday
22 July 1796
5 Saturday
23 July 1796
6 Sunday
24 July 1796
7 Monday
25 July 1796
8 Tuesday
26 July 1796
9 Wednesday
27 July 1796
10 Thursday
28 July 1796
décade 32
11 Friday
29 July 1796
12 Saturday
30 July 1796
13 Sunday
31 July 1796
14 Monday
1 August 1796
15 Tuesday
2 August 1796
16 Wednesday
3 August 1796
17 Thursday
4 August 1796
18 Friday
5 August 1796
19 Saturday
6 August 1796
20 Sunday
7 August 1796
décade 33
21 Monday
8 August 1796
22 Tuesday
9 August 1796
23 Wednesday
10 August 1796
24 Thursday
11 August 1796
25 Friday
12 August 1796
26 Saturday
13 August 1796
27 Sunday
14 August 1796
28 Monday
15 August 1796
29 Tuesday
16 August 1796
30 Wednesday
17 August 1796
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
5 Thermidor V
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Wednesday
19 July 1797
2 Thursday
20 July 1797
3 Friday
21 July 1797
4 Saturday
22 July 1797
5 Sunday
23 July 1797
6 Monday
24 July 1797
7 Tuesday
25 July 1797
8 Wednesday
26 July 1797
9 Thursday
27 July 1797
10 Friday
28 July 1797
décade 32
11 Saturday
29 July 1797
12 Sunday
30 July 1797
13 Monday
31 July 1797
14 Tuesday
1 August 1797
15 Wednesday
2 August 1797
16 Thursday
3 August 1797
17 Friday
4 August 1797
18 Saturday
5 August 1797
19 Sunday
6 August 1797
20 Monday
7 August 1797
décade 33
21 Tuesday
8 August 1797
22 Wednesday
9 August 1797
23 Thursday
10 August 1797
24 Friday
11 August 1797
25 Saturday
12 August 1797
26 Sunday
13 August 1797
27 Monday
14 August 1797
28 Tuesday
15 August 1797
29 Wednesday
16 August 1797
30 Thursday
17 August 1797
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
6 Thermidor VI
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Thursday
19 July 1798
2 Friday
20 July 1798
3 Saturday
21 July 1798
4 Sunday
22 July 1798
5 Monday
23 July 1798
6 Tuesday
24 July 1798
7 Wednesday
25 July 1798
8 Thursday
26 July 1798
9 Friday
27 July 1798
10 Saturday
28 July 1798
décade 32
11 Sunday
29 July 1798
12 Monday
30 July 1798
13 Tuesday
31 July 1798
14 Wednesday
1 August 1798
15 Thursday
2 August 1798
16 Friday
3 August 1798
17 Saturday
4 August 1798
18 Sunday
5 August 1798
19 Monday
6 August 1798
20 Tuesday
7 August 1798
décade 33
21 Wednesday
8 August 1798
22 Thursday
9 August 1798
23 Friday
10 August 1798
24 Saturday
11 August 1798
25 Sunday
12 August 1798
26 Monday
13 August 1798
27 Tuesday
14 August 1798
28 Wednesday
15 August 1798
29 Thursday
16 August 1798
30 Friday
17 August 1798
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
7 Thermidor VII
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Friday
19 July 1799
2 Saturday
20 July 1799
3 Sunday
21 July 1799
4 Monday
22 July 1799
5 Tuesday
23 July 1799
6 Wednesday
24 July 1799
7 Thursday
25 July 1799
8 Friday
26 July 1799
9 Saturday
27 July 1799
10 Sunday
28 July 1799
décade 32
11 Monday
29 July 1799
12 Tuesday
30 July 1799
13 Wednesday
31 July 1799
14 Thursday
1 August 1799
15 Friday
2 August 1799
16 Saturday
3 August 1799
17 Sunday
4 August 1799
18 Monday
5 August 1799
19 Tuesday
6 August 1799
20 Wednesday
7 August 1799
décade 33
21 Thursday
8 August 1799
22 Friday
9 August 1799
23 Saturday
10 August 1799
24 Sunday
11 August 1799
25 Monday
12 August 1799
26 Tuesday
13 August 1799
27 Wednesday
14 August 1799
28 Thursday
15 August 1799
29 Friday
16 August 1799
30 Saturday
17 August 1799
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
8 Thermidor VIII
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Sunday
20 July 1800
2 Monday
21 July 1800
3 Tuesday
22 July 1800
4 Wednesday
23 July 1800
5 Thursday
24 July 1800
6 Friday
25 July 1800
7 Saturday
26 July 1800
8 Sunday
27 July 1800
9 Monday
28 July 1800
10 Tuesday
29 July 1800
décade 32
11 Wednesday
30 July 1800
12 Thursday
31 July 1800
13 Friday
1 August 1800
14 Saturday
2 August 1800
15 Sunday
3 August 1800
16 Monday
4 August 1800
17 Tuesday
5 August 1800
18 Wednesday
6 August 1800
19 Thursday
7 August 1800
20 Friday
8 August 1800
décade 33
21 Saturday
9 August 1800
22 Sunday
10 August 1800
23 Monday
11 August 1800
24 Tuesday
12 August 1800
25 Wednesday
13 August 1800
26 Thursday
14 August 1800
27 Friday
15 August 1800
28 Saturday
16 August 1800
29 Sunday
17 August 1800
30 Monday
18 August 1800
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
9 Thermidor IX
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Monday
20 July 1801
2 Tuesday
21 July 1801
3 Wednesday
22 July 1801
4 Thursday
23 July 1801
5 Friday
24 July 1801
6 Saturday
25 July 1801
7 Sunday
26 July 1801
8 Monday
27 July 1801
9 Tuesday
28 July 1801
10 Wednesday
29 July 1801
décade 32
11 Thursday
30 July 1801
12 Friday
31 July 1801
13 Saturday
1 August 1801
14 Sunday
2 August 1801
15 Monday
3 August 1801
16 Tuesday
4 August 1801
17 Wednesday
5 August 1801
18 Thursday
6 August 1801
19 Friday
7 August 1801
20 Saturday
8 August 1801
décade 33
21 Sunday
9 August 1801
22 Monday
10 August 1801
23 Tuesday
11 August 1801
24 Wednesday
12 August 1801
25 Thursday
13 August 1801
26 Friday
14 August 1801
27 Saturday
15 August 1801
28 Sunday
16 August 1801
29 Monday
17 August 1801
30 Tuesday
18 August 1801
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
10 Thermidor X
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Tuesday
20 July 1802
2 Wednesday
21 July 1802
3 Thursday
22 July 1802
4 Friday
23 July 1802
5 Saturday
24 July 1802
6 Sunday
25 July 1802
7 Monday
26 July 1802
8 Tuesday
27 July 1802
9 Wednesday
28 July 1802
10 Thursday
29 July 1802
décade 32
11 Friday
30 July 1802
12 Saturday
31 July 1802
13 Sunday
1 August 1802
14 Monday
2 August 1802
15 Tuesday
3 August 1802
16 Wednesday
4 August 1802
17 Thursday
5 August 1802
18 Friday
6 August 1802
19 Saturday
7 August 1802
20 Sunday
8 August 1802
décade 33
21 Monday
9 August 1802
22 Tuesday
10 August 1802
23 Wednesday
11 August 1802
24 Thursday
12 August 1802
25 Friday
13 August 1802
26 Saturday
14 August 1802
27 Sunday
15 August 1802
28 Monday
16 August 1802
29 Tuesday
17 August 1802
30 Wednesday
18 August 1802
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
11 Thermidor XI
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Wednesday
20 July 1803
2 Thursday
21 July 1803
3 Friday
22 July 1803
4 Saturday
23 July 1803
5 Sunday
24 July 1803
6 Monday
25 July 1803
7 Tuesday
26 July 1803
8 Wednesday
27 July 1803
9 Thursday
28 July 1803
10 Friday
29 July 1803
décade 32
11 Saturday
30 July 1803
12 Sunday
31 July 1803
13 Monday
1 August 1803
14 Tuesday
2 August 1803
15 Wednesday
3 August 1803
16 Thursday
4 August 1803
17 Friday
5 August 1803
18 Saturday
6 August 1803
19 Sunday
7 August 1803
20 Monday
8 August 1803
décade 33
21 Tuesday
9 August 1803
22 Wednesday
10 August 1803
23 Thursday
11 August 1803
24 Friday
12 August 1803
25 Saturday
13 August 1803
26 Sunday
14 August 1803
27 Monday
15 August 1803
28 Tuesday
16 August 1803
29 Wednesday
17 August 1803
30 Thursday
18 August 1803
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
12 Thermidor XII
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Friday
20 July 1804
2 Saturday
21 July 1804
3 Sunday
22 July 1804
4 Monday
23 July 1804
5 Tuesday
24 July 1804
6 Wednesday
25 July 1804
7 Thursday
26 July 1804
8 Friday
27 July 1804
9 Saturday
28 July 1804
10 Sunday
29 July 1804
décade 32
11 Monday
30 July 1804
12 Tuesday
31 July 1804
13 Wednesday
1 August 1804
14 Thursday
2 August 1804
15 Friday
3 August 1804
16 Saturday
4 August 1804
17 Sunday
5 August 1804
18 Monday
6 August 1804
19 Tuesday
7 August 1804
20 Wednesday
8 August 1804
décade 33
21 Thursday
9 August 1804
22 Friday
10 August 1804
23 Saturday
11 August 1804
24 Sunday
12 August 1804
25 Monday
13 August 1804
26 Tuesday
14 August 1804
27 Wednesday
15 August 1804
28 Thursday
16 August 1804
29 Friday
17 August 1804
30 Saturday
18 August 1804
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
13 Thermidor XIII
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Saturday
20 July 1805
2 Sunday
21 July 1805
3 Monday
22 July 1805
4 Tuesday
23 July 1805
5 Wednesday
24 July 1805
6 Thursday
25 July 1805
7 Friday
26 July 1805
8 Saturday
27 July 1805
9 Sunday
28 July 1805
10 Monday
29 July 1805
décade 32
11 Tuesday
30 July 1805
12 Wednesday
31 July 1805
13 Thursday
1 August 1805
14 Friday
2 August 1805
15 Saturday
3 August 1805
16 Sunday
4 August 1805
17 Monday
5 August 1805
18 Tuesday
6 August 1805
19 Wednesday
7 August 1805
20 Thursday
8 August 1805
décade 33
21 Friday
9 August 1805
22 Saturday
10 August 1805
23 Sunday
11 August 1805
24 Monday
12 August 1805
25 Tuesday
13 August 1805
26 Wednesday
14 August 1805
27 Thursday
15 August 1805
28 Friday
16 August 1805
29 Saturday
17 August 1805
30 Sunday
18 August 1805
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich
14 Thermidor XIV
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 31
1 Sunday
20 July 1806
2 Monday
21 July 1806
3 Tuesday
22 July 1806
4 Wednesday
23 July 1806
5 Thursday
24 July 1806
6 Friday
25 July 1806
7 Saturday
26 July 1806
8 Sunday
27 July 1806
9 Monday
28 July 1806
10 Tuesday
29 July 1806
décade 32
11 Wednesday
30 July 1806
12 Thursday
31 July 1806
13 Friday
1 August 1806
14 Saturday
2 August 1806
15 Sunday
3 August 1806
16 Monday
4 August 1806
17 Tuesday
5 August 1806
18 Wednesday
6 August 1806
19 Thursday
7 August 1806
20 Friday
8 August 1806
décade 33
21 Saturday
9 August 1806
22 Sunday
10 August 1806
23 Monday
11 August 1806
24 Tuesday
12 August 1806
25 Wednesday
13 August 1806
26 Thursday
14 August 1806
27 Friday
15 August 1806
28 Saturday
16 August 1806
29 Sunday
17 August 1806
30 Monday
18 August 1806
10 h
Paris
7:41:28
Thermidor
17:47:27
24 h
Greenwich

Day name table

Like all French Republican Calendar months, Thermidor lasted 30 days and was divided into three 10-day weeks called décades (decades). Every day had the name of an agricultural plant, except the 5th (Quintidi) and 10th day (Decadi) of every decade, which had the name of a domestic animal or an agricultural tool, respectively.

  1re Décade 2e Décade 3e Décade
Primidi 1. Epeautre (Spelt) 11. Panic (Eryngo) 21. Carline (Silver Thistle)
Duodi 2. Bouillon blanc (Mullein) 12. Salicor (Glasswort) 22. Caprier (Caper)
Tridi 3. Melon (Melon) 13. Abricot (Apricot) 23. Lentille (Lentil)
Quartidi 4. Ivraie (Ryegrass) 14. Basilic (Basil) 24. Aunée (Elecampane)
Quintidi 5. Bélier (Ram) 15. Brebis (Ewe) 25. Loutre (Otter)
Sextidi 6. Prêle (Horsetail) 16. Guimauve (Marsh Mallow) 26. Myrthe (Myrtle)
Septidi 7. Armoise (Mugwort) 17. Lin (Flax) 27. Colza (Rapeseed)
Octidi 8. Carthame (Safflower) 18. Amande (Almond) 28. Lupin (Lupin)
Nonidi 9. Mûre (Mulberry) 19. Genthiane (Gentian) 29. Coton (Cotton)
Decadi 10. Arrosoir (Watering Can) 20. Écluse (Lock) 30. Moulin (Mill)

Conversion table

Table for conversion between Republican and Gregorian Calendar
for the month "Thermidor"
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
July 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 August
VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
July 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 August

Thermidor in revolution

The Thermidorian Reaction, Revolution of Thermidor, or simply Thermidor refers to the coup of 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794) in which the Committee of Public Safety led by Maximilien Robespierre was sidelined and its leaders arrested and guillotined, resulting in the end of the Reign of Terror. The new regime, known as The Directory, introduced more conservative policies aimed at stabilizing the revolutionary government.

Consequently, for historians of revolutionary movements, the term Thermidor has come to mean the phase in some revolutions when the political pendulum swings back towards something resembling a pre-revolutionary state, and power slips from the hands of the original revolutionary leadership. Leon Trotsky, in his book The Revolution Betrayed, refers to the rise of Joseph Stalin and the accompanying post-revolutionary bureaucracy as the "Soviet Thermidor".

Thermidor in culture

The food Lobster Thermidor was named, directly or indirectly, after the month. (Sometimes it is said that it was first prepared for Napoleon I during the month of Thermidor; others[who?] say that it was created by Tony Girod at the Café de Paris to celebrate the opening of a play called Thermidor.)

Thermidor is also the name of a story revolving around the end of the French Revolution in Neil Gaiman's The Sandman, issue #29.

"Thermidor" and "Thermidor 2" were lobster-like robots on Robot Wars.

A man by the name of "Thermidor" is the leader of the ORCA reactionary group in the video game Armored Core: For Answer. Additionally, in the game, ORCA launches a large-scale offensive on "13 Thermidor", as the game narration states that "for many, the chaos began in early July" (although it had been August by now).

There is a song recorded by J-pop artist Nana Mizuki by the name of "Thermidor". Its lyrics talk about a person in love that is also rethinking his or her personal feelings after realizing that the person they love has changed, and so has the person. Its lyrics mimic the modern definition of Thermidor.

The events of the Thermidorean Reaction are also referenced in an album by California punk-rock band Shinobu, which is appropriately titled "10 Thermidor", and has tracks named both "9 Thermidor" and "10 Thermidor" on the album.

External links


<footer>source wikipedia:Thermidor</footer>